However, a line of research conducted by Cartmill (1998) seemed to limit the scope of Lieberman's finding that there was "a significant degree of change in the status of the race concept". has argued that this may be because Lieberman and collaborators had looked at all the members of the American Anthropological Association irrespective of their field of research interest, while Cartmill had looked specifically at biological anthropologists interested in human variation.
In the same 1985 survey (), 16% of the surveyed and 36% of the surveyed disagreed with the proposition: "There are biological races in the species ."
The figure for physical anthropologists at granting departments was slightly higher, rising from 41% to 42%, with 50% agreeing. Lieberman's study also showed that more women reject the concept of race than men. This survey, however, did not specify any particular definition of race (although it did clearly specify within the ); it is difficult to say whether those who supported the statement thought of race in taxonomic or population terms.
A , taken in 1985 (), asked 1,200 American scientists how many disagree with the following proposition: "There are biological races in the species ." The responses were for anthropologists: